19 February 2018 Photoacoustic cystography using handheld dual modal clinical ultrasound photoacoustic imaging system
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Vesicoureteral reflux is the abnormal flow of urine from your bladder back up the tubes (ureters) that connect your kidneys to your bladder. Normally, urine flows only down from your kidneys to your bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux is usually diagnosed in infants and children. The disorder increases the risk of urinary tract infections, which, if left untreated, can lead to kidney damage. X-Ray cystography is used currently to diagnose this condition which uses ionising radiation, making it harmful for patients. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the urinary bladder using a handheld clinical ultrasound and photoacoustic dual modal imaging system in small animals (rats). Additionally, we demonstrate imaging vesicoureteral reflux using bladder mimicking phantoms. Urinary bladder imaging is done with the help of contrast agents like black ink and gold nanoparticles which have high optical absorption at 1064 nm. Imaging up to 2 cm was demonstrated with this system. Imaging was done at a framerate of 5 frames per second.
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Kathyayini Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini Sivasubramanian, Vijitha Periyasamy, Vijitha Periyasamy, Dienzo Rhonnie Austria, Dienzo Rhonnie Austria, Manojit Pramanik, Manojit Pramanik, } "Photoacoustic cystography using handheld dual modal clinical ultrasound photoacoustic imaging system", Proc. SPIE 10494, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2018, 1049442 (19 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2288230; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288230

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