20 February 2018 Non-contact assessment of obstructive sleep apnea cardiovascular biomarkers using photoplethysmography imaging
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 20% of the adult population, and is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive morbidities. However, it is estimated that up to 80% of treatable OSA cases remain undiagnosed. Cur- rent methods for diagnosing OSA are expensive, labor-intensive, and involve uncomfortable wearable sensors. This study explored the feasibility of non-contact biophotonic assessment of OSA cardiovascular biomarkers via photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI). In particular, PPGI was used to monitor the hemodynamic response to obstructive respiratory events. Sleep apnea onset was simulated using Muller's maneuver in which breathing was obstructed by a respiratory clamp. A custom PPGI system, coded hemodynamic imaging (CHI), was positioned 1 m above the bed and illuminated the participant's head with 850 nm light, providing non-intrusive illumination for night-time monitoring. A video was recorded before, during and following an apnea event at 60 fps, yielding 17 ms temporal resolution. Per-pixel absorbance signals were extracted using a Beer-Lambert derived light transport model, and subsequently denoised. The extracted hemodynamic signal exhibited dynamic temporal modulation during and following the apnea event. In particular, the pulse wave amplitude (PWA) decreased during obstructed breathing, indicating vasoconstriction. Upon successful inhalation, the PWA gradually increased toward homeostasis following a temporal phase delay. This temporal vascular tone modulation provides insight into autonomic and vascular response, and may be used to assess sleep apnea using non-contact biophotonic imaging.
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Robert Amelard, Robert Amelard, Kaylen J. Pfisterer, Kaylen J. Pfisterer, Shubh Jagani, Shubh Jagani, David A. Clausi, David A. Clausi, Alexander Wong, Alexander Wong, } "Non-contact assessment of obstructive sleep apnea cardiovascular biomarkers using photoplethysmography imaging", Proc. SPIE 10501, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVIII: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 1050113 (20 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2290672; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290672

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