Wavefront shaping devices such as deformable mirrors, liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLMs), and active lenses are of considerable interest in microscopy for aberration correction, volumetric imaging, and programmable excitation. Liquid crystal SLMs are high resolution phase modulators capable of creating complex phase profiles to reshape, or redirect light within a three-dimensional (3D) volume. Recent advances in Meadowlark Optics (MLO) SLMs reduce losses by increasing fill factor from 83.4% to 96%, and improving resolution from 512 x 512 pixels to 1920 x 1152 pixels while maintaining a liquid crystal response time of 300 Hz at 1064 nm. This paper summarizes new SLM capabilities, and benefits for microscopy.
"Advanced SLMs for microscopy", Proc. SPIE 10502, Adaptive Optics and Wavefront Control for Biological Systems IV, 1050204 (23 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2290455; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290455