Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has become a novel tool with advantages of full field, non-destructive, high-resolution and 3D imaging, which captures the quantitative amplitude and phase information of microscopic specimens. It’s a well-established method for digital recording and numerical reconstructing the full complex field of wavefront of the samples with a diffraction-limited lateral resolution down to 0.3 μm depending on the numerical aperture of microscope objective. Meanwhile, its axial resolution through axial direction is less than 10 nm due to the interferometric nature in phase imaging. Compared with the typical optical configurations such as Mach–Zehnder interferometer and Michelson interferometer, the common-path DHM has the advantages of simple and compact configuration, high stability, and so on. Here, a simple, compact, and low-cost common-path DHM based on a beam displacer unit is proposed for quantitative phase imaging of biological cells. The beam displacer unit is completely compatible with commercial microscope and can be easily set up in the output port of the microscope as a compact independent device. This technique can be used to achieve the quantitative phase measurement of biological cells with an excellent temporal stability of 0.51 nm, which makes it having a good prospect in the fields of biological and medical science. Living mouse osteoblastic cells are quantitatively measured with the system to demonstrate its capability and applicability.