23 February 2018 Remote enzyme activation using gold coated magnetite as antennae for radio frequency fields
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The emerging field of remote enzyme activation, or the ability to remotely turn thermophilic increase enzyme activity, could be a valuable tool for understanding cellular processes. Through exploitation of the temperature dependence of enzymatic processes and high thermal stability of thermophilic enzymes these experiments utilize nanoparticles as ‘antennae’ that convert radiofrequency (RF) radiation into local heat, increasing activity of the enzymes without increasing the temperature of the surrounding bulk solution. To investigate this possible tool, thermolysin, a metalloprotease was covalently conjugated to 4nm gold coated magnetite particles via peptide bond formation with the protecting ligand shell. RF stimulated protease activity at 17.76 MHz in a solenoid shaped antenna, utilizing both electric and magnetic field interactions was investigated. On average 40 percent higher protease activity was observed in the radio frequency fields then when bulk heating the sample to the same temperature. This is attributed to electrophoretic motion of the nanoparticle enzyme conjugates and local regions of heat generated by the relaxation of the magnetite cores with the oscillating field. Radio frequency local heating of nanoparticles conjugated to enzymes as demonstrated could be useful in the activation of specific enzymes in complex cellular environments.
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Christian B. Collins, Christian B. Collins, Christopher J. Ackerson, Christopher J. Ackerson, } "Remote enzyme activation using gold coated magnetite as antennae for radio frequency fields", Proc. SPIE 10507, Colloidal Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications XIII, 105070F (23 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2290478; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290478

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