In order to increase the output power and improve the efficiency of SPSSL, we conducted intensive studies on the suitable laser material selection for solar pump, high efficiency/large aperture focusing optical system, the optimization of concave cavity as the second focusing system, laser material bonding and surface processing. Using bonded and grooved Nd:YAG rod as laser material, large aperture Fresnel lens as the first stage focusing element, concave cavity as the second stage focusing element, we finally got 32.1W/m2 collection efficiency, which is the highest collection efficiency in the world up to now.
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Changming Zhao, Zhe Guan, Haiyang Zhang, "How to harvest efficient laser from solar light," Proc. SPIE 10511, Solid State Lasers XXVII: Technology and Devices, 105111N (15 February 2018);