To guide further development of CFW designs, we present thermal modeling, power scaling and design of single transverse mode operation of double-clad CFWs and redefine the single-mode operation criterion for the double-clad structure design. The power scaling modeling of double-clad CFW shows that in order to achieve the maximum possible output power limited by the physical properties, including diode brightness, thermal lens effect, and simulated Brillion scattering, the length of waveguide is in the range of 0.5~2 meters. The length of an individual CFW is limited by single crystal growth and doping uniformity to about 100 to 200 mm lengths, and also by availability of starting crystals and manufacturing complexity. To overcome the limitation of CFW lengths, end-to-end proximity-coupling of CFWs is introduced.
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Da Li, Huai-Chuan Lee, Stephanie K Meissner, Helmuth E. Meissner, "Laser performance and modeling of RE3+:YAG double-clad crystalline fiber waveguides ," Proc. SPIE 10511, Solid State Lasers XXVII: Technology and Devices, 105111Q (15 February 2018);