In research to improve laser mode control with minimal energy loss, systematic experiments have been executed using phase-only elements. These were composed of an intra-cavity step function and a diffractive out-coupler made of a computer-generated hologram. The platform was a 15-cm long solid-state laser that employs a neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal rod, producing 1064 nm multimodal laser output. The intra-cavity phase elements (PEs) were shown to be highly effective in obtaining beams with reduced M-squared values and increased output powers, yielding improved values of radiance. The utilization of more sophisticated diffractive elements is promising for more difficult laser systems.
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A. Alkan Gulses, Russell Kurtz, Gabriel Islas, Igor Anisimov, "Lasers with intra-cavity phase elements," Proc. SPIE 10513, Components and Packaging for Laser Systems IV, 1051318 (20 February 2018);