Additive manufacturing (commonly called “3D printing”) fabricates the desired final part directly from the input CAD (Computer Aided Design) file by depositing and fusing layer upon layer of the source material. New engineering designs are possible in which a single optimized part with novel topology can replace several traditional parts. The complex physics of metal deposition leads to variations in quality and to new flaws and residual stresses not seen in traditional manufacturing. Additive manufacturing currently has gaps in knowledge. Mission assurance will require: qualification and certification standards; sharing of data in handbooks; predictive models relating processing, microstructure and properties; and development of closed loop process control and non-destructive evaluation to reduce variability.