23 February 2018 Structure-induced asymmetry between counterpropagating modes in three-port couplers
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The continuing controversy regarding the validity of assuming different photon lifetimes for counterpropagating modes in whistle-geometry ring resonators has led us to re-examine the commonly held view that coupling coefficients between any two ports in Y-junction couplers (regardless of their symmetry) do not depend on the direction of propagation. Rigorous three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations show that the common assumptions about the operation o three-port couplers are sometimes grossly incorrect, as they arise from an oversimplified analytical model. An explanation is given why our results do not violate the Helmholtz reciprocity principle.
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Marek Osiński, Hosuk Lee, Hemashilpa Kalagara, Gennady A. Smolyakov, "Structure-induced asymmetry between counterpropagating modes in three-port couplers", Proc. SPIE 10526, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XXVI, 1052615 (23 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2295234; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2295234

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