Electro-optic modulators which modulates the intensity or phase of the light through the electric signal control, have been extensively investigated for the diverse field applications including optical communication, bio-sensing, and security-monitoring based on lightwave. With recent technological advance of the fabrication of high quality graphene over large area, graphene have been intensively studied as a basic element to build novel photonic and electro-optic devices. However, low optical absorption in ultra-thin layered graphene often limits the performance of the device. Although there have been several attempts to increase graphene-light interaction, realization of efficient and broadband graphene-based electro-optic modulators is still challenging.
In this work, we demonstrate an all-fiber graphene-based electro-optic modulator with a modulation depth of > 25 dB. In order to achieve non-resonant strong interaction with graphene, we employed a side-polished fiber (SPF) with high numerical aperture (NA) as a novel platform that evanescently interacts with graphene. The high NA fiber has about six times smaller mode-field area than that of the standard single-mode fiber, and we found that this can critically enhance the graphene-light interaction without significantly sacrificing the insertion loss. We experimentally fabricate the bi-layer graphene field-effect transistor onto the high-NA SPF, and covered index matched ion-liquid for further increase of the graphene-light interaction and effective gating. As a result, we observed that the fabricated device exhibits the modulation depth of 27.6 dB with low scattering loss at the applied voltage range within 2.5 V, which well agrees with our numerical expectation.