The refractive index difference profile of optical fibers is the key design parameter because it determines, among other properties, the insertion losses and propagating modes. Therefore, an accurate refractive index profiling method is of paramount importance to their development and optimization. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) is one of the available tools to retrieve structural characteristics of optical fibers, including the refractive index difference profile. Having the advantage of being non-destructive, several different QPI methods have been developed over the last decades. Here, we present a comparative study of three different available QPI techniques, namely the transport-of-intensity equation, quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry and digital holographic microscopy. To assess the accuracy and precision of those QPI techniques, quantitative phase images of the core of a well-characterized optical fiber have been retrieved for each of them and a robust image processing procedure has been applied in order to retrieve their refractive index difference profiles. As a result, even if the raw images for all the three QPI methods were suffering from different shortcomings, our robust automated image-processing pipeline successfully corrected these. After this treatment, all three QPI techniques yielded accurate, reliable and mutually consistent refractive index difference profiles in agreement with the accuracy and precision of the refracted near-field benchmark measurement.