Heavy duty operation in a high vacuum is exemplified via a single axis stage operating at 5E-7 Torr, having a moving mass of 0.96 kg, oriented against gravity. The stage is operated periodically (up and down) over a travel length of 45 mm. The motion profile has a trapezoidal shape with an acceleration of 1m/s2 and a constant velocity of 100 mm/s. The operational parameters (average absolute position error during constant velocity, motor force, dead zone level) remain stable over more than 370000 passes (experiment duration).
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Nir Karasikov, Gal Peled, Roman Yasinov, Michael Gissin, Alan Feinstein, "Piezo-based motion stages for heavy duty operation in clean environments," Proc. SPIE 10539, Photonic Instrumentation Engineering V, 105390Q (22 February 2018);