Semiconductor nanowire (NW) lasers have recently attracted increasing attention as ultra-small, highly-efficient coherent light emitters in the fields of nanophotonics, nano-optics and nanobiotechnology. Although there have been several demonstrations of single NW lasers utilizing bulk materials, it is crucial to incorporate lower-dimensional quantum nanostructures into the NW in order to improve device performance with respect to threshold current, differential gain, modulation bandwidth and temperature sensitivity. The quantum dot (QD) is a useful and essential nanostructure that can meet these requirements. In this presentation, we will introduce our recent research progress in NWQD lasers with various device configurations. The NW cavities with multi-stacked In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs QDs are grown on shallow (∼35 nm) GaAs core NWs and followed by GaAs/Al0.1Ga0.9As/GaAs core/shell/cap structures. Lasing oscillation have been so far achieved at room temperature by properly designing the NW cavity and tailoring the emission energy of each QD to enhance the optical gain. In this paper, several NWQD lasers with various device configurations are demonstrated and discussed; NWbased plasmonic QD lasers, free-standing NWQD lasers grown on DBRs/GaAs(111)B substrates, and NWQD lasers embedded in flexible substrates. Furthermore, we propose and demonstrate a growth scheme to reduce the lateral size of NWQDs by post-growth annealing to enhance their quantum confinement effect.