As an emerging hybrid imaging modality, cone-beam X-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT) has been proposed based on the development of X-ray excitable nanoparticles. Fast three-dimensional (3-D) CB-XLCT imaging has attracted significant attention for the application of XLCT in fast dynamic imaging study. Currently, due to the short data collection time, single-view CB-XLCT imaging achieves fast resolving the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of X-ray-excitable nanoparticles. However, owing to only one angle projection data is used in the reconstruction, the single-view CB-XLCT inverse problem is inherently ill-conditioned, which makes image reconstruction highly susceptible to the effects of noise and numerical errors. To solve the ill-posed inverse problem, using the sparseness of the X-ray-excitable nanoparticles distribution as the prior, a new reconstruction approach based on total variance is proposed in this study. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, a phantom experiment was performed based on a CB-XLCT imaging system. The experiments indicate that the reconstruction from single-view XCLT can provide satisfactory results based on the proposed approach. In conclusion, with the reconstruction approach based on total variance, we implement a fast XLCT reconstruction of high quality with only one angle projection data used, which would be helpful for fast dynamic imaging study. In future, we will focus on how to applying the proposed TV-based reconstruction method and CB-XLCT imaging system to image fast biological distributions of the X-ray excitable nanophosphors in vivo.