The aim of this study is to explore image-based features of thoracic adipose tissue on pre-operative chest CT to distinguish between the above two groups of patients. 140 unenhanced chest CT images from three lung transplant centers (Columbia, Penn, and Duke) are included in this study. 124 patients are in the successful group and 16 in failure group. Chest CT slices at the T7 and T8 vertebral levels are captured to represent the thoracic fat burden by using a standardized anatomic space (SAS) approach. Fat (subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)/ visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) intensity and texture properties (1142 in total) for each patient are collected, and then an optimal feature set is selected to maximize feature independence and separation between the two groups. Leave-one-out and leave-ten-out crossvalidation strategies are adopted to test the prediction ability based on those selected features all of which came from VAT texture properties. Accuracy of prediction (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87/0.97, 0.87/0.97, 0.88/1.00, and 0.88/0.99, respectively are achieved by the method. The optimal feature set includes only 5 features (also all from VAT), which might suggest that thoracic VAT plays a more important role than SAT in predicting PGD in lung transplant recipients.
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