27 February 2018 Impact of deep learning on the normalization of reconstruction kernel effects in imaging biomarker quantification: a pilot study in CT emphysema
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Abstract
Differing reconstruction kernels are known to strongly affect the variability of imaging biomarkers and thus remain as a barrier in translating the computer aided quantification techniques into clinical practice. This study presents a deep learning application to CT kernel conversion which converts a CT image of sharp kernel to that of standard kernel and evaluates its impact on variability reduction of a pulmonary imaging biomarker, the emphysema index (EI). Forty cases of low-dose chest CT exams obtained with 120kVp, 40mAs, 1mm thickness, of 2 reconstruction kernels (B30f, B50f) were selected from the low dose lung cancer screening database of our institution. A Fully convolutional network was implemented with Keras deep learning library. The model consisted of symmetric layers to capture the context and fine structure characteristics of CT images from the standard and sharp reconstruction kernels. Pairs of the full-resolution CT data set were fed to input and output nodes to train the convolutional network to learn the appropriate filter kernels for converting the CT images of sharp kernel to standard kernel with a criterion of measuring the mean squared error between the input and target images. EIs (RA950 and Perc15) were measured with a software package (ImagePrism Pulmo, Seoul, South Korea) and compared for the data sets of B50f, B30f, and the converted B50f. The effect of kernel conversion was evaluated with the mean and standard deviation of pair-wise differences in EI. The population mean of RA950 was 27.65 ± 7.28% for B50f data set, 10.82 ± 6.71% for the B30f data set, and 8.87 ± 6.20% for the converted B50f data set. The mean of pair-wise absolute differences in RA950 between B30f and B50f is reduced from 16.83% to 1.95% using kernel conversion. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the deep learning technique for CT kernel conversion and reducing the kernel-induced variability of EI quantification. The deep learning model has a potential to improve the reliability of imaging biomarker, especially in evaluating the longitudinal changes of EI even when the patient CT scans were performed with different kernels.
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Hyeongmin Jin, Hyeongmin Jin, Changyong Heo, Changyong Heo, Jong Hyo Kim, Jong Hyo Kim, } "Impact of deep learning on the normalization of reconstruction kernel effects in imaging biomarker quantification: a pilot study in CT emphysema ", Proc. SPIE 10575, Medical Imaging 2018: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 105753L (27 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2295010; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2295010
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