Algorithms for image segmentation (including object recognition and delineation) are influenced by the quality of object appearance in the image and overall image quality. However, the issue of how to perform segmentation evaluation as a function of these quality factors has not been addressed in the literature. In this paper, we present a solution to this problem. We devised a set of key quality criteria that influence segmentation (global and regional): posture deviations, image noise, beam hardening artifacts (streak artifacts), shape distortion, presence of pathology, object intensity deviation, and object contrast. A trained reader assigned a grade to each object for each criterion in each study. We developed algorithms based on logical predicates for determining a 1 to 10 numeric quality score for each object and each image from reader-assigned quality grades. We analyzed these object and image quality scores (OQS and IQS, respectively) in our data cohort by gender and age. We performed recognition and delineation of all objects using recent adaptations [8, 9] of our Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) framework  and analyzed the accuracy of recognition and delineation of each object. We illustrate our method on 216 head & neck and 211 thoracic cancer computed tomography (CT) studies.