Infusion into PPDO loaded 1.14±0.08 % AuNP by weight as determined by elemental analysis. The infusion did not alter PPDO’s mechanical strength nor crystallinity (Kruskal−Wallis one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). There was no cytotoxicity observed (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05) when tested against RF24 and MRC5 cells. Gold content in PPDO was maintained at ~2000 ppm during the 6-week incubation in PBS at 37oC.
As a proof-of-concept, two pigs were deployed with IVCF, one with AuNP-PPDO and the other without coating. Results show that the stent ring of AuNP-PPDO was highly visible even in the presence of iodine-based contrast agent and after clot introduction, but not of the uncoated IVCF. Autopsy at two weeks post-implantation showed AuNP-PPDO filter was endothelialized onto the IVC wall, and no sign of filter migration was observed. The induced clot was also still trapped within the AuNP-PPDO IVCF.
As a conclusion, we successfully fabricated AuNP-infused PPDO IVCF that is radiopaque, has robust mechanical strength, biocompatible, and can be imaged effectively in vivo. This suggests the efficacy of this novel, radiopaque, absorbable IVCF for monitoring its position and integrity over time, thus increasing the safety and efficacy of deep vein thrombosis treatment.