12 March 2018 3D printed cardiovascular patient specific phantoms used for clinical validation of a CT-derived FFR diagnostic software
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Purpose: 3D printed patient specific vascular models provide the ability to perform precise and repeatable benchtop experiments with simulated physiological blood flow conditions. This approach can be applied to CT-derived patient geometries to determine coronary flow related parameters such as Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR). To demonstrate the utility of this approach we compared bench-top results with non-invasive CT-derived FFR software based on a computational fluid dynamics algorithm and catheter based FFR measurements.

Materials and Methods: Twelve patients for whom catheter angiography was clinically indicated signed written informed consent to CT Angiography (CTA) before their standard care that included coronary angiography (ICA) and conventional FFR (Angio-FFR). The research CTA was used first to determine CT-derived FFR (Vital Images) and second to generate patient specific 3D printed models of the aortic root and three main coronary arteries that were connected to a programmable pulsatile pump. Benchtop FFR was derived from pressures measured proximal and distal to coronary stenosis using pressure transducers.

Results: All 12 patients completed the clinical study without any complication, and the three FFR techniques (Angio-FFR, CT-FFR, and Benchtop FFR) are reported for one or two main coronary arteries. The Pearson correlation among Benchtop FFR/ Angio-FFR, CT-FFR/ Benchtop FFR, and CT-FFR/ Angio-FFR are 0.871, 0.877, and 0.927 respectively.

Conclusions: 3D printed patient specific cardiovascular models successfully simulated hyperemic blood flow conditions, matching invasive Angio-FFR measurements. This benchtop flow system could be used to validate CTderived FFR diagnostic software, alleviating both cost and risk during invasive procedures.
Conference Presentation
© (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Kelsey N. Sommer, Kelsey N. Sommer, Lauren Shepard, Lauren Shepard, Nitant Vivek Karkhanis, Nitant Vivek Karkhanis, Vijay Iyer, Vijay Iyer, Erin Angel, Erin Angel, Michael F. Wilson, Michael F. Wilson, Frank J. Rybicki, Frank J. Rybicki, Dimitrios Mitsouras, Dimitrios Mitsouras, Stephen Rudin, Stephen Rudin, Ciprian N. Ionita, Ciprian N. Ionita, } "3D printed cardiovascular patient specific phantoms used for clinical validation of a CT-derived FFR diagnostic software ", Proc. SPIE 10578, Medical Imaging 2018: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 105780J (12 March 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2292736; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292736

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