The 3D model was connected to a pulsatile flow loop for simulating interventions using clinical devices such as catheters and stents. To validate the x-ray attenuation and establish clinical accuracy, the automatic exposure selection by a clinical c-arm system for the phantom was compared with that for a commercial anthropomorphic head phantom (SK-150, Phantom Labs). The percentage difference between automatic exposure selection for the neuro-intervention phantom and the SK-150 phantom was under 10%.
By changing 3D printed models, various patient diseased anatomies can be simulated accurately with the necessary x-ray attenuation. Using this platform various interventional procedures were performed using new imaging technologies such as a high-resolution x-ray fluoroscope and a dose-reduced region-of-interest attenuator and differential temporally filtered display for enhanced interventional imaging. Simulated clinical views from such phantom-based procedures were used to evaluate the potential clinical performance of such new technologies.