19 March 2018 Field-emission scanning probe lithography with self-actuating and self-sensing cantilevers for devices with single digit nanometer dimensions
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Abstract
Cost-effective generation of single-digit nano-lithographic features could be the way by which novel nanoelectronic devices, as single electron transistors combined with sophisticated CMOS integrated circuits, can be obtained. The capabilities of Field-Emission Scanning Probe Lithography (FE-SPL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) at cryogenic temperature open up a route to overcome the fundamental size limitations in nanofabrication. FE-SPL employs Fowler-Nordheim electron emission from the tip of a scanning probe in ambient conditions. The energy of the emitted electrons (<100 eV) is close to the lithographically relevant chemical excitations of the resist, thus strongly reducing proximity effects. The use of active, i.e. self-sensing and self-actuated, cantilevers as probes for FE-SPL leads to several promising performance benefits. These include: (1) Closed-loop lithography including pre-imaging, overlay alignment, exposure, and post-imaging for feature inspection; (2) Sub-5-nm lithographic resolution with sub-nm line edge roughness; (3) High overlay alignment accuracy; (4) Relatively low costs of ownership, since no vacuum is needed, and ease-of-use. Thus, FE-SPL is a promising tool for rapid nanoscale prototyping and fabrication of high resolution nanoimprint lithography templates. To demonstrate its capabilities we applied FE-SPL and RIE to fabricate single electron transistors (SET) targeted to operate at room temperature. Electrical characterization of these SET confirmed that the smallest functional structures had a diameter of only 1.8 nanometers. Devices at single digit nano-dimensions contain only a few dopant atoms and thus, these might be used to store and process quantum information by employing the states of individual atoms.
Conference Presentation
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Ivo W. Rangelow, Ivo W. Rangelow, Claudia Lenk , Claudia Lenk , Martin Hofmann , Martin Hofmann , Steve Lenk , Steve Lenk , Tzvetan Ivanov , Tzvetan Ivanov , Ahmad Ahmad , Ahmad Ahmad , Marcus Kaestner, Marcus Kaestner, Elshad Guliyev, Elshad Guliyev, Christoph Reuter, Christoph Reuter, Matthias Budden, Matthias Budden, Jens-Peter Zöllner, Jens-Peter Zöllner, Mathias Holz , Mathias Holz , Alexander Reum, Alexander Reum, Zahid Durrani, Zahid Durrani, Mervyn Jones, Mervyn Jones, Cemal Aydogan, Cemal Aydogan, Mahmut Bicer, Mahmut Bicer, B. Erdem Alaca, B. Erdem Alaca, Michael Kuehnel, Michael Kuehnel, Thomas Fröhlich, Thomas Fröhlich, Roland Fuessl, Roland Fuessl, E. Manske, E. Manske, "Field-emission scanning probe lithography with self-actuating and self-sensing cantilevers for devices with single digit nanometer dimensions", Proc. SPIE 10584, Novel Patterning Technologies 2018, 1058406 (19 March 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2299955; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2299955
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