28 March 2018 Investigating the threshold electron energy for reactions in EUV resist materials
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Abstract
During the photolithographic process, a photoresist is exposed to EUV photons; it is believed that the secondary low energy electrons generated during this exposure decompose the PAG molecule, producing acid. Regardless of how these secondary electrons are produced, whether by incident electrons or photons, the number of acids produced will lead to a solubility change within the photoresist. The goal of this study is to observe the solubility changing reactions due to low energy electron exposures (approximately 5-80 eV). The reactions occurring in the photoresist are monitored through outgassing measurements during EUV photon exposures, and low energy electron exposures. Outgassing results indicate that PAG decomposition occurs with electrons as low as 4.5 eV, and subsequent deprotection reactions are observed due to the acid generated from the PAG. Without being in the presence of PAG decomposition, deprotection reactions are caused by electron exposures with energies down to at least 15 eV. These deprotections that occur in the absence of PAG decomposition are referred to as direct deprotection reactions. Sentaurus Lithography simulations show that these direct deprotection reactions can affect the resist modeling.
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Jake Kaminsky, Steven Grzeskowiak, Sean Gibbons, Jonathan Chandonait, Ulrich Welling, Lawrence S. Melvin, Yudhishthir Kandel, Robert L. Brainard, Greg Denbeaux, "Investigating the threshold electron energy for reactions in EUV resist materials", Proc. SPIE 10586, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXV, 105861N (28 March 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2297386; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2297386
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