A bottom-fixed wrap with 3 windings is characterized in a 1in. water pipe at a flow velocity of 0.75 m/s. It delivers a constant power output of 0.53 μW at a 2.3 MΩ load and an effective voltage of 1.1 V. Considering the extremely low power requirements of modern sensors, several harvesters may be combined to supply such devices.
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Sherif Keddis, Rafik Mitry, Norbert Schwesinger, "Piezoelectric flow harvesting for in-pipe metering systems," Proc. SPIE 10595, Active and Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems XII, 105950P (15 March 2018);