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25 July 1989 H- And Li- Enhancement In A Multicusp Source
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H- and Li- have many useful applications in accelerator and fusion research. It has been demonstrated that these negative ions can be generated either by surface conversion or by volume processes. Since the H- or Li- ions produced by volume processes have lower transverse energy than those formed by surface conversion processes, the emittance of the H- or Li- beam extracted from volume sources will be much lower. Experimental investigations have been conducted to enhance the H- and Li- yield in the volume multicusp source by optimizing the source geometry and by mixing various elements with the background hydrogen or lithium. The largest improvement is achieved by adding cesium vapor to the source, resulting in a factor of sixteen increase in H- output. Source operation with an admixture of lithium and cesium has also been tested for the production of Li- ions.
© (1989) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
K. N. Leung, S. R. Walther, and W. B. Kunkel "H- And Li- Enhancement In A Multicusp Source", Proc. SPIE 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, (25 July 1989);

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