A measuring method based on linear structured light scanning is proposed to achieve the accurate measurement of the complex internal shape of large steel plates. Firstly, by using a calibration plate with round marks, an improved line scanning calibration method is designed. The internal and external parameters of camera are determined through the calibration method. Secondly, the images of steel plates are acquired by line scan camera. Then the Canny edge detection method is used to extract approximate contours of the steel plate images, the Gauss fitting algorithm is used to extract the sub-pixel edges of the steel plate contours. Thirdly, for the problem of inaccurate restoration of contour size, by measuring the distance between adjacent points in the grid of known dimensions, the horizontal and vertical error curves of the images are obtained. Finally, these horizontal and vertical error curves can be used to correct the contours of steel plates, and then combined with the calibration parameters of internal and external, the size of these contours can be calculated. The experiments results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve the error of 1 mm/m in 1.2m×2.6m field of view, which has satisfied the demands of industrial measurement.