In this paper, the infrared radiation characteristics of sea background have been studied. First, MODTRAN4.0 was used to calculate the transmittance of mid-infrared and far-infrared, and the solar spectral irradiance, the atmospheric and sea surface radiation. Secondly, according to the JONSWAP sea spectrum model, the different sea conditions grid model based on gravity wave theory was generated. The spectral scattering of the sun and the atmospheric background radiation was studied. The total infrared radiation of the sea surface was calculated. Finally, the infrared radiation of a piece of sea surface was mapped to each pixel of the detector, and the infrared radiation is simulated. The conclusion is that solar radiance has a great influence on the infrared radiance. When the detector angle is close to the sun’s height angle, there will be bright spots on the sea surface.