These environments provide many challenges to current sensors and sensing systems. Most optical sensors suffer degradation of performance due to low visibility in turbid water and the surf zone area. They also lack ability to find buried or hidden objects. Various RF based sensor systems demonstrate the ability to detect and image hidden and buried objects, but attenuation in water makes them almost impossible to operate through the water. Active magnetic detection operates both ashore and underwater, but the range is limited. Biological sensors and synthetic biology also show potential as solutions. The solution resides in multiple sensors that address disparate environmental and target challenges as a system. Recent development in autonomy and proliferation of small unmanned platforms allow new distributed and autonomous operational concepts that utilize unmanned platforms to gain safe standoff distance. This paper plans to present the future operational environment challenges and research and development opportunities.
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Joong H. Kim, "Explosive hazard defeat challenges and needs in future conflict and environment," Proc. SPIE 10656, Image Sensing Technologies: Materials, Devices, Systems, and Applications V, 106561I (17 May 2018);