We use modeling and simulation to study the behavior and performance of hybrid quantum computing systems. Our approach is based on a layered design with abstract machine models, which identify the key components and interfaces for quantum processing units, quantum programming models, and hybrid execution models. We use discrete-event simulating to track the dynamical state of hierarchical abstract machine models while executing test programs, and we collect statistics on time and energy consumption to forecast the resources required by quantum processors for future scientific computation.
Quantum information processing relies on the fundamental property of quantum interference, where the quality of the interference directly correlates to the indistinguishability of the interacting particles. The creation of these indistinguishable particles, photons in this case, has conventionally been accomplished with nonlinear crystals and optical filters to remove spectral distinguishability, albeit sacrificing the number of photons. This research describes the use of an integrated aluminum nitride microring resonator circuit to selectively generate photon pairs at the narrow cavity transmissions, thereby producing spectrally indistinguishable photons in the ultraviolet regime to interact with trapped ion quantum memories. The spectral characteristics of these photons must be carefully controlled for two reasons: (i) interference quality depends on the spectral indistinguishability, and (ii) the wavelength must be strictly controlled to interact with atomic transitions. The specific ion of interest for these trapped ion quantum memories is Ytterbium which has a transition at 369.5 nm with 12.5 GHz offset levels. Ytterbium ions serve as very long lived and stable quantum memories with storage times on the order of 10’s of minutes, compared with photonic quantum memories which are limited to 10-6 to 10-3 seconds. The combination of the long lived atomic memory, integrated photonic circuitry, and the photonic quantum bits are necessary to produce the first quantum information processors. In this article, I will present results on wavelength operation, dispersion analysis, and second harmonic generation in aluminum nitride waveguides.
Quantum computation uses qubit in superposition and entanglement states providing more sophisticated computation ability regarding today’s computers. For that purpose of developing a novel computer concept exploiting quantum dynamics at the nanoscale, we joined an EC H2020 program consortium named COPAC . We propose to analyze the nonlinear 2 dimensional optical response of assembled nanostructures in solid arrays to a sequence of short laser pulses. Based on 2D maps of the stimulated emission we implement a novel paradigm for parallel information processing. Within the COPAC project, we, in KiloLambda, will develop the device nanostructure and engineering design.
In future quantum communication systems, single photons will be required to possess very narrow linewidths and accurate wavelengths for efficient interaction with quantum memories. Spectral characterization of such single photon sources is necessary and must be performed with very high spectral resolution, wavelength accuracy and detection sensitivity. We propose a method to precisely characterize the spectral properties of narrow-linewidth single-photon sources using an atomic vapor cell based on electromagnetically-induced transparency. We have experimentally demonstrated a spectral resolution of better than 150 kHz, an absolute wavelength accuracy of within 50 kHz and an exceptional detection sensitivity suitable for optical signals as weak as -117 dBm.
We can envision an eventual global multi-node quantum network, with hubs located around the planet. This, however, is still a far reach from current state of the art. Here we discuss some of our approaches to bridge the gap. Specifically, we are pursuing airborne and satellite-based free-space quantum communication. Free-space platforms naturally lend themselves to reconfiguration - likely required by a future quantum-secure network -- as nodes may be easily moved/reoriented to target new nodes. We are implementing a multi-copter drone-based quantum cryptography link, including fast, high-resolution optical stabilization; compact, independent sources; and lightweight single-photon detection. Having access to an agile, reconfigurable QKD networking system will enable quantum cryptography to reach applications prohibited by current approaches, such as temporary networks in seaborne, urban, or even battlefield situations. By using transmitters and receivers at higher altitudes, deleterious effects weather events like fog and turbulence can be mitigated. At longer scale, we are pursuing a quantum link from the International Space Station to earth, which will use hyperentanglement to enable a variety of advanced quantum communication protocols, including multi-bit-per-photon key distribution and "superdense" teleportation. With our table-top experiment we have investigated the effects of loss and turbulence, and demonstrated a system to compensate for the otherwise devastating effect of the Doppler effect from the rapidly moving ISS platform.
With the development of quantum computers, that can break current classical encryption schemes, unconditionally secure quantum key distribution (QKD) will become very important. Current fiber-based QKD implementations are limited to a few hundred kilometers due to optical losses in fiber and cannot be used with mobile platforms. A free space QKD system has recently been demonstrated over very large distances using entangled photons. However, due to the extremely high pointing accuracy required, the implementation of this QKD approach is very challenging and power demanding. Here we describe a new type of QKD link that uses modulating retro-reflectors. Our approach reduces pointing requirements by orders of magnitude, allowing an increase in pointing tolerance from microradians to tens of milliradians. Additionally, it reduces power requirements on the moving platform and has potential of reducing some influence of turbulence on the secure key distribution rate. Our approach relies on new, high extinction surface-normal multiple quantum well modulators with a maximum modulation rate of 100 MHz. We report on a BB84 QKD link using our system in the laboratory.
Unconditionally secure key distribution is impossible using classical communication only. However, by providing Alice and Bob with quantum capable hardware the task becomes possible. How quantum does a protocol need to be, though, in order to gain this advantage? In 2007, Boyer et al., proposed "semi-quantum key distribution" where only Alice need be quantum while Bob need only limited classical" capabilities. Several protocols were proposed and proven secure in the perfect qubit scenario" but not necessarily against realistic attacks (with one exception being recently published in (PRA 96 062335)). In this paper, we devise a new SQKD protocol and analyze its security against certain practical attacks.
We present the theory and experimental results behind using a 3D holographic signal for secure communications. A hologram of a complex 3D object is recorded to be used as a hard key for data encryption and decryption. The hologram is cut in half to be used at each end of the system. One piece is used for data encryption, while the other is used for data decryption. The first piece of hologram is modulated with the data to be encrypted. The hologram has an extremely complex phase distribution which encodes the data signal incident on the first piece of hologram. In order to extract the data from the modulated holographic carrier, the signal must be passed through the second hologram, removing the complex phase contributions of the first hologram. The signal beam from the first piece of hologram is used to illuminate the second piece of the same hologram, creating a self-reconstructing system. The 3D hologram's interference pattern is highly specific to the 3D object and conditions during the holographic writing process. With a sufficiently complex 3D object used to generate the holographic hard key, the data will be nearly impossible to recover without using the second piece of the same hologram. This method of producing a self-reconstructing hologram ensures that the pieces in use are from the same original hologram, providing a system hard key, making it an extremely difficult system to counterfeit.
The transmission and reception of polarized quantum-limited signals from space is of capital interest for a variety of fundamental-physics experiments and quantum-communication protocols. Specifically, Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) deals with the problem of distributing unconditionally-secure cryptographic keys between two parties. Enabling this technology from space is a critical step for developing a truly-secure global communication network. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) performed the first successful measurement on the ground of a quantum-limited signal from a satellite in experiments carried out on early August in 2016. The SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) lasercom terminal onboard the LEO satellite SOCRATES (Space Optical Communications Research Advanced Technology Satellite) was utilized for this purpose. Two non-orthogonally polarized signals in the ~800-nm band and modulated at 10 MHz were transmitted by SOTA and received in the single-photon regime by using a 1-m Cassegrain telescope on a ground station located in an urban area of Tokyo (Japan). In these experiments, after compensating the Doppler effect induced by the fast motion of the satellite, a QKD-enabling QBER (Quantum Bit Error Rate) below 5% was measured with estimated key rates in the order of several Kbit/s, proving the feasibility of quantum communications in a real scenario from space for the first time.
A Poisson model for entanglement optimization in quantum repeater networks is defined in this paper. The optimization framework fuses the fundamental concepts of quantum Shannon theory with the theory of evolutionary algorithms and seismic wave propagations in nature. The optimization model aims to maximize the entanglement fidelity and relative entropy of entanglement for all entangled connections of the quantum network. The cost functions are subject of a minimization defined to cover and integrate the physical attributes of entanglement transmission, purification, and storage of entanglement in quantum memories. The method can be implemented with low complexity that allows a straightforward application in future quantum Internet and quantum networking scenarios.
Well-defined and stable quantum networks are essential to realize functional quantum communication applications. In particular, the quantum states must be precisely controlled to produce meaningful results. To counteract the unstable phase shifts in photonic systems, we apply local Bell state measurements to calibrate a non-local quantum channel. The calibration procedure is tested by applying a time encoded quantum key distribution procedure using entangled photons.
There is an analog in physics of Godel’s incompleteness theorems, namely the theorem that the set of explanations of given evidence is unaccountably infinite. An implication of this theorem is that contact between theory and experiment depends on activity beyond computation and measurement—physical activity of some agent making a guess. Standing on the need for guesswork, we develop a representation of a symbol-handling agent that both computes and, on occasion, receives a guess from interaction with an oracle. We show: (1) how physics depends on such an agent to bridge a logical gap between theory and experiment; (2) how to represent the capacity of agents to communicate numerals and other symbols, and (3) how that communication is a foundation on which to develop both theory and implementation of spacetime and related competing schemes for the management of motion.
In this paper we study unitary braid group representations associated with Majorana Fermions. Majorana Fermions are represented by Majorana operators, elements of a Clifford algebra. The paper recalls and proves a general result about braid group representations associated with Clifford algebras, and compares this result with the Ivanov braiding associated with Majorana operators. The paper generalizes observations of Kauffman and Lomonaco and of Mo-Lin Ge to show that certain strings of Majorana operators give rise to extraspecial 2-groups and to braiding representations of the Ivanov type.
We introduce a new approach to evaluating entangled quantum networks using information geometry. Quantum computing is powerful because of the enhanced correlations from quantum entanglement. For example, larger entangled networks can enhance quantum key distribution (QKD). Each network we examine is an n-photon quantum state with a degree of entanglement. We analyze such a state within the space of measured data from repeated experiments made by n observers over a set of identically-prepared quantum states – a quantum state interrogation in the space of measurements. Each observer records a 1 if their detector triggers, otherwise they record a 0. This generates a string of 1’s and 0’s at each detector, and each observer can define a binary random variable from this sequence. We use a well-known information geometry-based measure of distance that applies to these binary strings of measurement outcomes,1–3 and we introduce a generalization of this length to area, volume and higher-dimensional volumes.4 These geometric equations are defined using the familiar Shannon expression for joint and mutual entropy.5 We apply our approach to three distinct tripartite quantum states: the |GHZi state, the |Wi state, and a separable state |Pi. We generalize a well-known information geometry analysis of a bipartite state to a tripartite state. This approach provides a novel way to characterize quantum states, and it may have favorable scaling with increased number of photons.
Theory and related designs for enhancing communications and more generally information transfer by using quantum hyper-entanglement are discussed. Quantum hyper-entanglement refers to entanglement in more than one quantum mechanical degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum, radial quantum number and frequency. Each extra degree of freedom increases the dimensionality d of the underlying Hilbert space. The hyperentangled signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are d times the related classical quantity due to the enhancement born of hyper-entanglement. Communication time can be reduced by a factor d or d ⋅ M, where M is the number of message photons used. Errors in parameter estimation related to information stored in the signal experience a factor of d ⋅ M reduction. This paper considers the use of generalized Bell states and discusses circuitry for their transmission, analysis and detection. Holevo bounds and Von-Neumann entropies are calculated for both the hyper-entangled case and non-entangled case. It is shown that hyper-entanglement can increase the maximum information transferrable by more than log2 (d) bits. The Holevo bound results are discussed in the context of the types of generalized Bell states. Generalized measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are introduced that hold for linear combinations of generalized Bell states. Different sets of complete orthogonal projection operators and their applications are discussed. Loss mechanisms due to transmission hardware such as orbital angular moment polarization rotation, and polarizing beam splitter cross-talk are calculated. Propagation and detection loss as well as noise are considered.
We theoretically consider light storage in a single nanoparticle levitated in an optical dipole trap and subjected to nonlinear feedback cooling. The storage protocol is realized by controlling the coupling between mechanical displacement and signal pulse by maneuvering the intensity of writing and readout pulses. The process involves writing and readout pulses at one mechanical frequency below the signal pulse. We demonstrate that during the writing pulse, a signal pulse is stored as a mechanical excitation of the nanoparticle oscillation. It is then shown that a readout pulse at later time can retrieve the stored optical information from the mechanical oscillator. A long storage lifetime of 2 ms is obtained in our system due to the absence of clamping losses. Further, we describe that our protocol can be used for wavelength conversion and shows a saturation in the conversion efficiency as a function of cooperativities of the writing and readout pulses. We also illustrate that the presence of linear feedback heating can lead to the amplification of the retrieved photon energy. Our prototype for light storage with levitated optomechanics can be used to explore the possibility of quantum memories for photonic states.
Quantum networking exploits features of quantum mechanics to provide ultrasecure networks that are both tamper-proof and tamper-evident. Such networks can be implemented as distant memory nodes connected via photon-based interfaces. Trapped ions are nearly ideal quantum network nodes due to the precise control possible over both their internal and external degrees of freedom as well as for their superior performance as long-term quantum memories. Photon-based qubits are the natural choice to transfer information within the network due to their ability to transmit quantum information over long distances and the capability to process information ”on-the-fly” between the memory nodes. We present the quantum research being done at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) with a focus on trapped ion qubits, the short- and long-term goals of the lab, and some of the unique resources we have access to at AFRL.
Proc. SPIE 10660, Higher dimensional quantum communication in a curved spacetime: an efficient simulation of the propagation of the wavefront a photon , 106600M (16 May 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2305060
A photon with a modulated wavefront can produce a quantum communication channel in a larger Hilbert space. For example, higher dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can encode information in the transverse linear momentum (LM) or orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of a photon. This is markedly different than using the intrinsic polarization of a photon. HD-QKD has advantages for free space QKD since it can increase the communication channels tolerance to bit error rate (BER) while maintaining or increasing the channels bandwidth. We describe an efficient numerical simulation of the propagation photon with an arbitrary complex wavefront in a material with an isotropic but inhomogeneous index of refraction. We simulate the waveform propagation of an optical vortex in a volume holographic element in the paraxial approximation using an operator splitting method. We use this code to analyze an OAM volume-holographic sorter. Furthermore, there are analogue models of the evolution of a wavefront in the curved spacetime environs of the Earth that can be constructed using an optical medium with a given index of refraction. This can lead to a work-bench realization of a satellite HD-QKD system.
Quantum applications transmit and receive data through quantum and classical communication channels. Channel capacity, the distance and the photon path between transmitting and receiving parties and the speed of the computation links play an essential role in timely synchronization and delivery of information using classical and quantum channels. In this study, we analyze and optimize the parameters of the communication channels needed for the quantum application to successfully operate. We also develop algorithms for synchronizing data delivery on classical and quantum channels.