22 May 2018 3D opto-structuring of ceramics at nanoscale
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Abstract
Ceramics as advanced materials play an important role in science and technology as they are mechanically robust, can withstand immense heat, are chemically inert. Consequently, there is a direct end-user driven need to find ways for efficiently acquiring free-form 3D ceramic structures. Recently, stereo-lithographic 3D printing of hybrid organic-inorganic photo-polymer and subsequent heating was demonstrated to be capable of providing true 3D ceramic and glass structures. Up to now, this was limited to (sub-)millimeter scale and naturally the next step is to acquire functional glass-/ceramic-like 3D structures in micro-/nano-dimensions. In this paper, we explore a possibility to apply ultrafast 3D laser nanolithography followed by heating to acquire ceramic 3D structures down to micro-/nano-dimension. Laser fabrication is employed for the production of initial 3D structures with varying (ranging within hundreds of nm) feature sizes out of hybrid organic-inorganic material SZ2080. Then, a post-fabrication heating at different temperatures up to 1500 °C in an air atmosphere facilitates metal-organic framework decomposition, which results in the glass-ceramic hybrid material. Additionally, annealing procedure densifies the obtained objects providing an extra route for size control. As we show, this can be applied to bulk and free-form objects. We uncover that the geometric downscaling can reach up to 40%, while the aspect ratio of single features, as well as filling ratio of the whole object, remains the same regardless of volume/surface-area ratio. The structures proved to be qualitatively resistant to dry etching, hinting at significantly increased resiliency. Finally, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed in order to uncover undergoing chemical processes during heat-treatment in order to determine the composition of material obtained. Revealed physical and chemical properties prove the proposed approach paving a route towards 3D opto-structuring of ceramics at the nanoscale for diverse photonic, microfluidic and biomedical applications.
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Viktorija Padolskytė, Viktorija Padolskytė, Darius Gailevičius, Darius Gailevičius, Linas Jonušauskas, Linas Jonušauskas, Lina Mikoliūnaitė, Lina Mikoliūnaitė, Tomas Katkus, Tomas Katkus, Roaldas Gadonas, Roaldas Gadonas, Simas Šakirzanovas, Simas Šakirzanovas, Vygantas Mizeikis, Vygantas Mizeikis, Kestutis Staliunas, Kestutis Staliunas, Saulius Juodkazis, Saulius Juodkazis, Mangirdas Malinauskas, Mangirdas Malinauskas, } "3D opto-structuring of ceramics at nanoscale", Proc. SPIE 10675, 3D Printed Optics and Additive Photonic Manufacturing, 106750U (22 May 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2306883; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2306883
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