Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a recent method of imaging especially adapted to the imaging of samples of life sciences thanks to its ability to generate 3D images, with an interesting contrast and a low level of photodamage thanks to the range of wavelengths involved in the near infrared. This last point is crucial in the field of laser source development. Indeed, it has been recently identified that many new laser sources are adapted in their parameters to generate images by a multiphoton process. This results in the recent and fast increase of the quantity of laser sources especially dedicated to MPM with sometimes a focus on a specific multiphoton process. This article is an updated review of the laser sources involved in MPM in order to complete the previous one already published in 2017. Now, a focus on the new laser sources that can be listed during the two last years is proposed. We can see that a ten of drastically different and new laser sources are listed during the two last years. Is MPM dedicated to biomedical application a sufficiently broad topic with a sufficiently high level of market allowing to warrant such high level of investment in research-time and in laser development with the highest performances? Would not there be other scientific fields requiring such level of investments? Are these laser performances really identified and considered at their true level by the scientists who need MPM?
C. Lefort, C. Lefort,
"Laser sources in multiphoton microscopy: overview and optimization ", Proc. SPIE 10677, Unconventional Optical Imaging, 106770V (24 May 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2302994; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2302994