The fabrication of microstructures for sensing and actuating has evolved in the last few years to include special technologies and materials, not commonly used in the integrated circuit industry, but which are, at least to some degree, compatible with those planar structures. Microsensors and actuators are now more frequently being constructed in the third dimension to enable mechanical motion, or to incorporate packaging components. This paper presents some of the materials and technologies for microstructure engineering which are being developed and implemented in current microsensor designs.
R. L. Smith,
S. D. Collins,
"Materials And Technologies For Microstructure Engineering", Proc. SPIE 1068, Catheter-Based Sensing and Imaging Technology, (8 August 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.952151; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.952151