9 May 2018 Validation of quasi-normal modes and of constant-flux modes for computing fundamental resonances of VCSELs
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Abstract
Open resonant optical devices such as an oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be characterized by a quasi-normal mode (QNM) expansion. In contrast to eigenmodes of a closed system, QNMs exhibit an exponential divergence in the exterior of the device and are no longer normalizable. This behavior renders the mathematical treatment and physical understanding very challenging. As an alternative we investigate the constant-flux mode (CFM) expansion which avoids the divergence in the exterior domain. Besides numerical studies, we present results for different oxide aperture sizes and positions inside the investigated VCSEL. Here, we apply CFMs to describe the impact on the resonance wavelength and on the mode profile.
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Theresa Hoehne, Theresa Hoehne, Lin Zschiedrich, Lin Zschiedrich, Nasibeh Haghighi, Nasibeh Haghighi, James A. Lott, James A. Lott, Sven Burger, Sven Burger, } "Validation of quasi-normal modes and of constant-flux modes for computing fundamental resonances of VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 10682, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics VIII, 106821U (9 May 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2307200; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2307200
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