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15 June 2018 Optical gratings with low wavefront aberrations and low straylight for enhanced spectroscopical applications
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Abstract
The sensing performance of spectroscopic systems can be enhanced by improving their optical core-element: the optical grating. in particular for imaging spectrometers - especially Hyper-Spectral Imagers - beside the polarization sensitivity and efficiency the imaging quality of the diffraction grating is an important parameter. Optical elements within the spectrometer are manufactured while aiming on lowest wave front aberrations. Thus, least imaging aberration quality of the grating is required not to limit the overall imaging quality of the instrument. Different types of spectrometers (Offner, Czerny Turner) lead to different requirements for the grating surface figure. Beside wavefront aberrations the straylight of gratings will impact the optical performance of spectrometers too. Both parameters are crucially influenced by the manufacturing processes. During the manufacturing process of the grating substrate, a sequence of polishing steps can be applied in order to minimize the wavefront aberrations and roughness. Chemical assisted polishing in combination with classical techniques lead to least surface roughness. A good practice for the manufacturing of aspheres and freeform substrates is the generation of an initial figure close to the final shape only by a classical process, followed by a careful applied aspherization. The imaging performance (wavefront and straylight) of the grating is also optimized due to the recording setup of the holography - including all employed optics for the wave forming. Holographically manufactured gratings with adapted wave forming functions are used for transmission or reflection gratings on different types of substrates like prisms, convex and concave spherical and aspherical surface shapes, up to free-form elements. Numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) work on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. All those manufactured gratings can be coated with adapted coatings to support their reflection or transmission operation. The present approach can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings for the EUV to the IR. In this paper we report our results on designing and manufacturing high quality gratings based on holographic processes in order to enable diffraction limited complex spectrometric setups over certain wavelength ranges. Most beneficial is an optimization of the grating during spectrometer design phase while regarding the manufacturing as well. However, the initial optical design approach will show that gratings can be tailored to the specific requirements of the spectrometer (in order to enhance the imaging quality). The enhancement of the optical performance may lead to a specific wavefront shape after the grating element. this special capability for aberration reduction can be defined to the grating during the holographic process. In general, holography enables to manufacture gratings with a specific and adapted wavefront error compensation functions. Beside the results of low aberration gratings the results on straylight measurements will be presented. Recent results and optimization will be shown.
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Torsten Diehl, Peter Triebel, Tobias Moeller, Alexandre Gatto, Dennis Lehr, Alexander Pesch, Lars H. Erdmann, Matthias Burkhardt, Alexander Kalies, and Felix Koch "Optical gratings with low wavefront aberrations and low straylight for enhanced spectroscopical applications", Proc. SPIE 10692, Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Metrology VI, 106920H (15 June 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2313550
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