13 April 2018 Automatic white blood cell classification using pre-trained deep learning models: ResNet and Inception
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Proceedings Volume 10696, Tenth International Conference on Machine Vision (ICMV 2017); 1069612 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2311282
Event: Tenth International Conference on Machine Vision, 2017, Vienna, Austria
Abstract
This works gives an account of evaluation of white blood cell differential counts via computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system and hematology rules. Leukocytes, also called white blood cells (WBCs) play main role of the immune system. Leukocyte is responsible for phagocytosis and immunity and therefore in defense against infection involving the fatal diseases incidence and mortality related issues. Admittedly, microscopic examination of blood samples is a time consuming, expensive and error-prone task. A manual diagnosis would search for specific Leukocytes and number abnormalities in the blood slides while complete blood count (CBC) examination is performed. Complications may arise from the large number of varying samples including different types of Leukocytes, related sub-types and concentration in blood, which makes the analysis prone to human error. This process can be automated by computerized techniques which are more reliable and economical. In essence, we seek to determine a fast, accurate mechanism for classification and gather information about distribution of white blood evidences which may help to diagnose the degree of any abnormalities during CBC test. In this work, we consider the problem of pre-processing and supervised classification of white blood cells into their four primary types including Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, and Monocytes using a consecutive proposed deep learning framework. For first step, this research proposes three consecutive pre-processing calculations namely are color distortion; bounding box distortion (crop) and image flipping mirroring. In second phase, white blood cell recognition performed with hierarchy topological feature extraction using Inception and ResNet architectures. Finally, the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of cell classification with (11200) training samples and 1244 white blood cells evaluation data set are presented in confusion matrices and interpreted using accuracy rate, and false positive with the classification framework being validated with experiments conducted on poor quality blood images sized 320 × 240 pixels. The deferential outcomes in the challenging cell detection task, as shown in result section, indicate that there is a significant achievement in using Inception and ResNet architecture with proposed settings. Our framework detects on average 100% of the four main white blood cell types using ResNet V1 50 while also alternative promising result with 99.84% and 99.46% accuracy rate obtained with ResNet V1 152 and ResNet 101, respectively with 3000 epochs and fine-tuning all layers. Further statistical confusion matrix tests revealed that this work achieved 1, 0.9979, 0.9989 sensitivity values when area under the curve (AUC) scores above 1, 0.9992, 0.9833 on three proposed techniques. In addition, current work shows negligible and small false negative 0, 2, 1 and substantial false positive with 0, 0, 5 values in Leukocytes detection.
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Mehdi Habibzadeh, Mehdi Habibzadeh, Mahboobeh Jannesari, Mahboobeh Jannesari, Zahra Rezaei, Zahra Rezaei, Hossein Baharvand, Hossein Baharvand, Mehdi Totonchi, Mehdi Totonchi, } "Automatic white blood cell classification using pre-trained deep learning models: ResNet and Inception", Proc. SPIE 10696, Tenth International Conference on Machine Vision (ICMV 2017), 1069612 (13 April 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2311282; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2311282
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