The InGaAs Short-wave infrared detector is a temperature-sensitive device. Accurate temperature control can effectively reduce the background signal and improve detection accuracy, detection sensitivity, and the SNR of the detection system. Firstly, the relationship between temperature and detection background, NEP is analyzed, the principle of TEC and formula between cooling power, cooling current and hot-cold interface temperature difference are introduced. Then, the high precision constant current drive circuit based on triode voltage control current, and an incremental algorithm model based on deviation tracking compensation and PID control are proposed, which effectively suppresses the temperature overshoot, overcomes the temperature inertia, and has strong robustness. Finally, the detector and temperature control system are tested. Results show that: the lower of detector temperature, the smaller the temperature fluctuation, the higher the detection accuracy and the detection sensitivity. The temperature control system achieves the high temperature control with the temperature control rate is 7~8°C/min and the temperature fluctuation is better than ±0. 04°C.