Typical natural backgrounds include land, sea, desert, sky and so on, and experimental measurement is an effective means to obtain background radiation data. Because the background infrared radiation is affected by season, weather and the angle of solar radiation, it is necessary to collect environmental parameters at the same time during testing. The screening and collection of major environmental parameters is crucial for subsequent radiation data processing. In view of this problem, first of all, the influence of environmental reference on background infrared radiation was theoretically calculated by MODTRAN software, and the main parameters were screened out. A test program for radiation measurement of natural background is formed, which is used as a reference for the design of background infrared radiation measurement.