A high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) can measure vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter ratio and the aerosol extinction coefficient simultaneously. Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer used as a spectrum filter can provide fine frequency resolution with an important impact on HSRL retrieval accuracy. However, in practical applications, the spectral characteristics of the interferometer are affected by many factors. In this article, the impact of several factors on F-P interferometer spectral properties, such as the temperature change, the beam divergence angle, the absorption loss, surface defects and non-parallelism of the interferometer, were analyzed in depth. The performances of F-P interference spectrum filters are modeled and simulated by analyzing the characteristics of lidar echo, respectively using Gaussian model and Bruneau model. Finally, designed the sandwich structure of F-P etalon encapsulation, and the finite element method is used for thermal analysis.