The reflected or radiated electromagnetic wave from natural objects exhibits different polarization characteristics. By detecting the polarization properties of light waves, more information from the target can be obtained, as well as the target recognition capability can be strengthened. In this paper, the research progress of the image processing method for infrared polarization detection is introduced. The traditional extraction methods of polarization components and the theory of polarization information processing are initially demonstrated. The fabricated 128×128 integrated polarization infrared detector, whose extinction ratio is 10:1, is also proposed. By using of the image reconstruction method, polarization images captured from this detector, which can acquire four polarization components simultaneously, are processed. Further, the degree and angle of polarization of natural scene images are obtained as well.