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12 July 2018 Characterization of lemniscate atmospheric aberrations in Gemini Planet Imager data
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A semi analytic framework for simulating the effects of atmospheric seeing in Adaptive Optics systems on an 8-m telescope is developed with the intention of understanding the origin of the wind-butterfly, a characteristic twolobed halo in the PSF of AO imaging. Simulations show that errors in the compensated phase on the aperture due to servo-lag have preferential direction orthogonal to the direction of wind propagation which, when Fourier Transformed into the image plane, appear with their characteristic lemniscate shape along the wind direction. We develop a metric to quantify the effect of this aberration with the fractional standard deviation in an annulus centered around the PSF, and use telescope pointing to correlate this effect with data from an atmospheric models, the NOAA GFS. Our results show that the jet stream at altitudes of 100-200 hPa (equivalently 10-15 km above sea level) is highly correlated (13.2σ) with the strong butterfly, while the ground wind and other layers are more or less uncorrelated.
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Alexander Madurowicz, Bruce A. Macintosh, Jean-Baptiste Ruffio, Jeffery Chilcote, Vanessa P. Bailey, Lisa Poyneer, Eric Nielsen, and Andrew P. Norton "Characterization of lemniscate atmospheric aberrations in Gemini Planet Imager data", Proc. SPIE 10703, Adaptive Optics Systems VI, 107036E (12 July 2018);

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