6 July 2018 Development of germanium charge-coupled devices
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Abstract
Silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are commonly utilized for scientific imaging in wavebands spanning the near infrared to soft X-ray. These devices offer numerous advantages including large format, excellent uniformity, low read noise, noiseless on-chip charge summation, and high energy resolution in the soft X-ray band. By building CCDs on bulk germanium, we can realize all of these advantages while covering an even broader spectral range, notably including the short-wave infrared (SWIR) and hard X-ray bands. Since germanium is available in wafer diameters up to 200 mm and can be processed in the same tools used to build silicon CCDs, large-format (>10 MPixel, >10 cm2 ) germanium imaging devices with narrow pixel pitch can be fabricated. Furthermore, devices fabricated on germanium have recently demonstrated the combination of low surface state density and high carrier lifetime required to achieve low dark current in a CCD. At MIT Lincoln Laboratory, we have been developing germanium imaging devices with the goal of fabricating large-format CCDs with SWIR or broadband X-ray sensitivity, and we recently realized our first front-illuminated CCDs built on bulk germanium. In this article, we describe design and fabrication of these arrays, analysis of read noise and dark current on these devices, and efforts to scale to larger device formats.
Conference Presentation
© (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
C. W. Leitz, C. W. Leitz, M. Zhu, M. Zhu, S. Rabe, S. Rabe, B. Burke, B. Burke, I. Prigozhin, I. Prigozhin, D. O'Mara, D. O'Mara, K. Ryu, K. Ryu, M. Cooper, M. Cooper, R. Reich, R. Reich, K. Johnson, K. Johnson, W. Hu, W. Hu, B. Felton, B. Felton, M. Cook, M. Cook, C. Stull, C. Stull, V. Suntharalingam, V. Suntharalingam, } "Development of germanium charge-coupled devices", Proc. SPIE 10709, High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy VIII, 1070908 (6 July 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2310120; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2310120
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