There are manufactured models with the use of Ugleron and Astralens in a sponge and emission substance. A layout using Ugleron in the emission substance is tested for durability and currently has an operating time of 40,000 hours. A model with the use of Astralens and Ugleron in a sponge and emission substance respectively is tested for maximum current density. To date, it shows results comparable to the standard cathode. However, there is a suggestion that cathodes with Astralens and Ugleron have a lower evaporation rate of the active substance. There is predicted longer durability than for the standard cathode at the same emissivity.
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T. M. Krachkovskaya, G. V. Sahadji, A. S. Emelyanov, M. V. Silaeva, "Application of carbon nanoclusters in electronics," Proc. SPIE 10716, Saratov Fall Meeting 2017: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine XIX, 107161R (26 April 2018);