A range of image processing hardware and software is used as a research tool and provides useful data for a number of Defence projects. Often these projects require the development of original ways of using and calibrating state-of-the-art equipment to record images and process them to aid interpretation and provide the required data. Initially, image acquisition and digital image processing techniques were used at Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) to observe phenomena that occurred during the high speed transient events associated with energetic materials such as explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants. However, with the introduction of automated image processing techniques, more diversified applications such as particle sizing and fragmentation sizing studies have become commonplace. This paper discusses the applicability of image enhancement, processing and measurement to projects such as the study of shaped charge warheads. Measurements relating to shaped charge warhead formation and penetration have provided a data base for assessing the accuracy of 2-D computer model codes. Digital image processing techniques have also been valuable in assessing the ability of multispectral screening smokes to camouflage Defence vehicles and personnel. Other applications incorporate image analysis techniques used in conjunction with flash radiography, high speed video, and photo instrumentation imaging devices. Discussion includes experimental configuration and calibration of these devices so that geometric and grey level integrity of subjects is controlled and optimised prior to, and during, digital image processing.