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18 September 2018 The influence of natural and artificial fogs on visible and infrared imaging
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Although the effects on imaging through natural fog have been well studied, the literature does not yield clear answers as to the conditions when infrared outperforms visible band imaging. While theoretical study of scattering properties are useful, they have consistently lacked the connection to the intrinsic thermal contrast available in outdoor scenes in foggy conditions—the low thermal contrast during heavy fog is responsible for the disappointing performance for thermal imaging through fog in practice. We demonstrate experiments showing that thermal infrared performs well for artificial fog, and that the artificial fogs closely replicate the optical properties of natural fogs of the same diameter, but that the particle sizes of artificial fogs are too small to simulate natural fog particles. This discrepancy makes infrared imaging look much better than it otherwise would when using artificial fogs to simulate natural ones.
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Nathan Hagen "The influence of natural and artificial fogs on visible and infrared imaging", Proc. SPIE 10765, Infrared Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XXVI, 1076504 (18 September 2018);

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