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24 October 2018 Using a CCD camera lidar system for detection of Asian dust
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During intense spring and early summer storms, substantial volumes of dust from east Asian desert regions are lofted over the continent and transported by prevailing winds across the Pacific Ocean. The phenomenon has wide reaching effects including long range nutrient and sediment transport as well as radiative forcing. Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an atmospheric baseline station in Hawaii at an altitude of 3397-m.a.s.l.. MLO’s CCD Camera Lidar (CLidar) has fine near-ground altitude resolution, which makes it a useful system for Asian dust detection, especially at high altitude sites such as MLO. A 20-Watt, 532-nm Nd:YAG laser was vertically transmitted into the atmosphere above MLO. The side-scatter from atmospheric constituents, such as clouds, aerosols, and air molecules was detected by a wide-angle CCD camera situated 139-m from the laser. The obtained signal was range-normalized using a molecular scattering model and corrected for transmission with a column-averaged aerosol phase function derived from MLO-based AERONET photometer measurements. In several of the resulting aerosol extinction profiles, notable aerosol layers were observed near altitude ranges in which Asian dust is typically transported by prevailing winds. Corresponding relative humidity measurements made by nearby radiosondes were examined to differentiate aerosol scattering from cloud scattering. To further examine layers exhibiting both aerosol extinction peaks and relative humidity levels below that of tenuous ice clouds, back trajectories were conducted using NOAA’s Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Several layers from 2008 and 2009 were traced back to East Asian deserts.
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Jalal Butt, Chris Oville, Nimmi C. P. Sharma, and John E. Barnes "Using a CCD camera lidar system for detection of Asian dust", Proc. SPIE 10779, Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring XVI, 107790Z (24 October 2018);

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