The large field survey optical telescope system has strong spatial target information acquisition capabilities. Wide-angle telescope array as a typical large-field survey optical telescope system, can be used for the general survey of space targets, access to important parameters such as orbital parameters and shape and size parameters, is a powerful tool to grasp the spatial situation. In order to analyze the tracking effectiveness of the wide-angle telescope array for space targets and explore the best use scheme, this paper compares and analyzes the ability of the typical wide-angle telescope array and the ground-based large-caliber telescope to detect the space target and determine the space target’s initial orbit. First, establish a spatial target orbit model. The STK (Satellite Tool Kit) high-precision orbit model was used to calculate the theoretical position of the space target and ground station. Then based on the positioning accuracy of the telescope and the quality of the detection field of view, the detection error matrix of the wide-angle telescope array and the largecaliber telescope of the foundation is simulated respectively, and the spatial target optical detection position information is given in combination with the detection error matrix. Second, the initial orbit calculation is performed. The simulated space target detection data and ground station location data are substituted into the improved Laplace initial orbit calculation equation, and the spatial target orbital parameter determination research is carried out. Third, conduct the analysis of the orbital error. According to the characteristics of the two detection methods, the initial orbits of the space target under the two use modes are calculated and compared, and the orbit determination errors of the two detection methods under the same detection duration are compared and analyzed. At the same time, using the highprecision orbit model to perform the orbit simulation deduction on the initial orbit, deducing the curve of the orbital error within 5 hours; Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the detection duration on the accuracy of the initial track, the space target observation data with a detection time of 40 seconds to 170 seconds is simulated. The data is brought into the derailment determination equation, and the accuracy of the initial orbit determination of the space target under different detection durations is calculated. The simulation results show that the wide-angle telescope array detection arc length is long. When the detection duration exceeds 100 seconds, the initial orbit determination error is less affected by the telescope detection error, and the orbit accuracy is high, which can provide high-precision data for subsequent precision tracking. At the same time, the wideangle telescope array detection field of view is large, so that it can meet the requirements of the census of the space target, can simultaneously monitor multiple targets for a long time, obtain spatial target luminosity change information, and has high spatial target monitoring comprehensive effectiveness. In terms of practical value, the price of the wideangle telescope array is much lower than traditional high-precision telescopes and precision tracking radars, and has a high practical value.