In order to explore the extinction characteristics of different types of aerosols and multiple scattering effects on the Transmission performance of visible Light, four wavelengths of 400 nm, 488 nm, 550 nm and 694 nm and four common aerosols of Oceanic, Dust-Like, Water-Soluble and Soot were selected. Based on the Mie scattering theory and the steady-state Monte Carlo model, the transmission attenuation characteristics of visible light in atmosphere are studied. The results show that the scattering intensity of single particle decreases with the increase of incident wavelength. The extinction efficiency factor of Oceanic, Water-Soluble and Soot particles decreases with the increase of wavelength, whereas Dust-Like particles have the opposite effect. The extinction characteristics of Oceanic, Dust-Like and WaterSoluble particles are dominated by scattering, while Soot particles are dominated by absorption. The results of simulation of multiple scattering by steady-state Monte Carlo method show that the transmission rate of light wave in Oceanic aerosols is the highest, and in Dust-Like aerosols, Water-Soluble aerosols and Soot aerosols decrease in turn. The transmission rate increases gradually with the increase of visibility. The absorption effect can be neglected in multiple scattering processes when the visibility reaches a certain degree. This conclusion is helpful to construct a more accurate image degradation model in a specific type of aerosol optical thick imaging path.