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30 January 1989 Modeling and Simulation of Multiple Chemical States in Photoresist Materials
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A general approach to the modeling and simulation of advanced resist systems that rely on transitions between multiple chemical states is presented. The SAMPLE program has been extended to include multiple chemical states that occur during post-exposure baking steps. The bake simulation routine uses reaction kinetics to convert a user specified system of chemical reactions to a system of nonlinear first order differential equations. The system of differential equations is solved numerically for the local concentration of each chemical state throughout the resist as a function of time. The general modeling approach and simulation capability are demonstrated for Shipley XP-8798 chemical amplification resist. The exposure is modeled through resist bleaching measurements. Infrared spectroscopy is used to determine reaction rate coefficients for the acid catalyzed cross-linking reaction that occurs during the post-exposure bake. The development rate is related to the state of the resist following the bake. The models for the exposure, baking and development of the resist are combined to simulate a resist development profile. Experimental results are used in conjunction with simulation to determine the effect of increased sensitivity on resolution.
© (1989) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Richard A. Ferguson, Chris A. Spence, Yosi Shacham-Diamand, and Andrew R. Neureuther "Modeling and Simulation of Multiple Chemical States in Photoresist Materials", Proc. SPIE 1086, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing VI, (30 January 1989);

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