Firstly, gold nanosphere and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) conjugant was used to study the photodynamic therapy efficiency and its mechanism. We found that the conjugant can improve the cell killing efficiency that mainly attribute to the carriers function of the gold nanoparticles. In order to shift the absorption peak to red light that offer deeper penetration of tissues, gold nanorod and Hematoporphyrin monomethyl Ether (HMME) was conjugated to employ photodynamic therapy of KB cells. During the research, the 808 nm laser light and xenon lamp were used to irradiate the sample, which offered better therapy efficiency than gold nanosphere. Since TiO2 can be used to effectively generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic application with the absorption in the ultraviolet range without oxygen, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are sensitized by linking with the photosensitizer, HMME, to form HMME-TiO2 nanocomposites (NCs) for demonstrating the photodynamic effects under the illumination of white light. The HMME-TiO2 NCs of different composition ratios are prepared for maximizing the generation of ROS and optimizing the inactivation effect of KB cells. The material characteristics and the ROS generation capability of the HMME-TiO2 NCs with the optimized combination ratio show their merits in a photodynamic process under white light irradiation. The application of such NCs to KB cell experiments results in a higher inactivation efficiency when compared to pure HMME of the same concentration. In general, different nanoparticles can improve PDT efficiency with different increasement, mechanism, advantage and disadvantage, we should choose different nonaparticle according to different applications.