Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an important tool for investigating vascular networks and microcirculation in living tissue. Traditional OCTA detects blood vessels via intravascular dynamic scattering signals derived from the movements of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the low hematocrit and long latency between RBCs in capillaries make these OCTA signals discontinuous, leading to incomplete mapping of the vascular networks. OCTA imaging of microvascular circulation is particularly challenging in tumors due to the abnormally slow blood flow in angiogenic tumor vessels and strong attenuation of light by tumor tissue. Here we demonstrate in vivo that gold nanoprisms (GNPRs) can be used as OCT contrast agents working in the second near infrared window, significantly enhancing the dynamic scattering signals in microvessels and improving the sensitivity of OCTA in skin tissue and melanoma tumors in live mice. This is the first demonstration that nanoparticle-based OCT contrast agent works in vivo in the second near infrared window, which allows deeper imaging depth by OCT. With GNPRs as contrast agents, the post-injection OCT angiograms showed 41% and 59% more microvasculature than pre-injection angiograms in healthy mouse skin and melanoma tumors, respectively. By enabling better characterization of microvascular circulation in vivo, GNPR-enhanced OCTA could lead to better understanding of vascular functions during pathological conditions, more accurate measurements of therapeutic response, and improved patient prognoses.